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  • Affiliations :
    Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ; Stopford Energy and Environment Limited, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, LA1 4YQ.
    Authors :
    Matthew J. Riding, Ben Herbert, Lois Ricketts, Ian Dodd, Nick Ostle, Kirk T. Semple.
    Abstract:
    As the global population is expected to reach 9 billion by 2050, humanity needs to balance an ever increasing demand for food, energy and natural resources, with sustainable management of ecosystems and the vital services that they provide. The intensification of agriculture, including the use of fertilisers from finite sources, has resulted in extensive soil degradation, which has increased food production costs and CO 2 emissions, threatening food security. The Bioenergy sector has significant potential to contribute to the formation of a circular economy. This paper presents the scientific, regulatory and socioeconomic barriers to the use of the nutrient waste streams from biomass thermal conversion (ash) and anaerobic digestion (digestate) as sustainable soil amendments for use in place of traditional fertilisers. It is argued that while the ability of combined ash and digestate to remedy many threats to ecosystems and provide a market to incentivise the renewable bio-energy schemes is promising, a step-change is required to alter perceptions of ‘waste’, from an expensive problem, to a product with environmental and economic value. This can only be achieved by well-informed interactions between scientists, regulators and end users, to improve the spread and speed of innovation with this sector. • Demands for food and energy need meeting with sustainably managed ecosystems • By-products from bioenergy have the potential to contribute to a circular economy • Legislation prevents the use of bioenergy by-products to their maximum potential • Perceptions of these by-products need changing from problems to products with value
    DOI : 10.1016/j.envint.2014.10.025
  • Affiliations :
    Department of Medicine, George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA; Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, Washington, DC, USA; Florey Institute of Neuroscience and M.
    Authors :
    Neal D. Barnard, Ashley I. Bush, Antonia Ceccarelli, James Cooper, Celeste A. de Jager, Kirk I. Erickson, Gary Fraser, Shelli Kesler, Susan M. Levin, Brendan Lucey, Martha Clare Morris, Rosanna Squitt.
    Abstract:
    Risk of developing Alzheimer's disease is increased by older age, genetic factors, and several medical risk factors. Studies have also suggested that dietary and lifestyle factors may influence risk, raising the possibility that preventive strategies may be effective. This body of research is incomplete. However, because the most scientifically supported lifestyle factors for Alzheimer's disease are known factors for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, it is reasonable to provide preliminary guidance to help individuals who wish to reduce their risk. At the International Conference on Nutrition and the Brain, Washington, DC, July 19–20, 2013, speakers were asked to comment on possible guidelines for Alzheimer's disease prevention, with an aim of developing a set of practical, albeit preliminary, steps to be recommended to members of the public. From this discussion, 7 guidelines emerged related to healthful diet and exercise habits.
    DOI : 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.03.033
  • Affiliations :
    Department of Radiology, University of California, Los Angeles Medical Center; Laboratory of Neuroimaging, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; Department of Radiol.
    Authors :
    Cyrus A. Raji, Kirk I. Erickson, Oscar Lopez, Lewis H. Kuller, H. Michael Gach, Paul M. Thompson, Mario Riverol, James T. Becker.
    Abstract:
    Brain health may be affected by modifiable lifestyle factors; consuming fish and anti-oxidative omega-3 fatty acids may reduce brain structural abnormality risk. To determine whether dietary fish consumption is related to brain structural integrity among cognitively normal elders. Data were analyzed from 260 cognitively normal individuals from the Cardiovascular Health Study with information on fish consumption from the National Cancer Institute Food Frequency Questionnaire and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The relationship between fish consumption data collected in 1989–1990 and brain structural MRI obtained in 1998–1999 was assessed using voxel-based morphometry in multiple regression analyses in 2012. Covariates were age, gender, race, education, white matter lesions, MRI-identified infarcts, waist/hip ratio, and physical activity as assessed by the number of city blocks walked in 1 week. Volumetric changes were further modeled with omega-3 fatty acid estimates to better understand the mechanistic link between fish consumption, brain health, and Alzheimer disease. Weekly consumption of baked or broiled fish was positively associated with gray matter volumes in the hippocampus, precuneus, posterior cingulate, and orbital frontal cortex even after adjusting for covariates. These results did not change when including omega-3 fatty acid estimates in the analysis. Dietary consumption of baked or broiled fish is related to larger gray matter volumes independent of omega-3 fatty acid content. These findings suggest that a confluence of lifestyle factors influence brain health, adding to the growing body of evidence that prevention strategies for late-life brain health need to begin decades earlier.
    DOI : 10.1016/j.amepre.2014.05.037
  • Affiliations :
    UCSF Center for Colitis and Crohn’s Disease, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 1701 Divisadero Street, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA.
    Authors :
    Kirk Lin, Uma Mahadevan.
    Abstract:
    Biologic therapies, including the anti–tumor necrosis factor-? and cell adhesion molecule inhibitor drugs, have revolutionized the treatment of moderate-to-severe inflammatory bowel disease. Since the introduction of anti–tumor necrosis factor therapies, the strategy of empiric dose-escalation, either increasing the dose or frequency of administration, has been used to recapture clinical response in inflammatory bowel disease. Disparate clinical outcomes have been linked to serum drug and antidrug antibody levels. Therapeutic drug monitoring has emerged as a framework for understanding and responding to the variability in clinical response and remission.
    DOI : 10.1016/j.gtc.2014.05.007