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  • Affiliations :
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Unit of Audiology and Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, University of Parma, Italy.
    Authors :
    Andrea Bacciu, Filippo Di Lella, Enrico Pasanisi, Ilaria Gambardella, Maria Silvia Saccardi, Salvatore Bacciu, Vincenzo Vincenti.
    Abstract:
    The clinical features and surgical results of “closed type” versus “open type” congenital cholesteatoma were compared in order to analyse the differences between the two forms; whether the morphology of the disease may have a role in the staging systems has been also evaluated. We reviewed retrospectively 95 patients (96 ears) who underwent surgery for congenital cholesteatoma over a 15-year period focusing on the clinical differences between open and closed type congenital cholesteatoma. Seventy-one patients (74%) had a closed-type and 25 (26%) an open type congenital cholesteatoma. Our study confirmed the higher prevalence of the closed type, as well as, a younger age at initial diagnosis compared with the open type congenital cholesteatoma. Other differences between the two forms were: modality of diagnosis (pathognomonic otoscopy in 100% of the closed type and in 40% of the open type), positive history for otitis media with effusion (51.4% in closed type vs 20% in open type), involvement of the tympanic membrane quadrants (anterior quadrants were more frequently involved in the closed forms, whereas posterior quadrants were more frequently involved in the open forms), disease extension and aggressiveness. A residual cholesteatoma was found in 6 out of the 71 patients (8.4%) with a closed type congenital cholesteatoma and in 10 out of the 25 patients (40%) with an open type congenital cholesteatoma. After adjusting for potential confounders, open-type congenital cholesteatoma was significantly associated with residual cholesteatoma compared to the closed-type (odds ratio [OR] 7.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10–49.77, p = 0.03). This study confirmed that the open congenital cholesteatoma has global clinical features that are uniquely different from the classical closed form. These differences could reflect a distinct pathogenesis, but there is no proof of this to date. The classification of the congenital cholesteatoma could be further refined by adding the morphologic type of the disease.
    DOI : 10.1016/j.ijporl.2014.10.014
  • Affiliations :
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Unit of Audiology and Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43126 Parma, Italy.
    Authors :
    Andrea Bacciu, Filippo Di Lella, Enrico Pasanisi, Ilaria Gambardella, Maria Silvia Saccardi, Salvatore Bacciu, Vincenzo Vincenti.
    Abstract:
    The clinical features and surgical results of “closed type” versus “open type” congenital cholesteatoma were compared in order to analyse the differences between the two forms; whether the morphology of the disease may have a role in the staging systems has been also evaluated. We reviewed retrospectively 95 patients (96 ears) who underwent surgery for congenital cholesteatoma over a 15-year period focusing on the clinical differences between open and closed type congenital cholesteatoma. Seventy-one patients (74%) had a closed-type and 25 (26%) an open type congenital cholesteatoma. Our study confirmed the higher prevalence of the closed type, as well as, a younger age at initial diagnosis compared with the open type congenital cholesteatoma. Other differences between the two forms were: modality of diagnosis (pathognomonic otoscopy in 100% of the closed type and in 40% of the open type), positive history for otitis media with effusion (51.4% in closed type vs 20% in open type), involvement of the tympanic membrane quadrants (anterior quadrants were more frequently involved in the closed forms, whereas posterior quadrants were more frequently involved in the open forms), disease extension and aggressiveness. A residual cholesteatoma was found in 6 out of the 71 patients (8.4%) with a closed type congenital cholesteatoma and in 10 out of the 25 patients (40%) with an open type congenital cholesteatoma. After adjusting for potential confounders, open-type congenital cholesteatoma was significantly associated with residual cholesteatoma compared to the closed-type (odds ratio [OR] 7.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10–49.77, p = 0.03). This study confirmed that the open congenital cholesteatoma has global clinical features that are uniquely different from the classical closed form. These differences could reflect a distinct pathogenesis, but there is no proof of this to date. The classification of the congenital cholesteatoma could be further refined by adding the morphologic type of the disease.
    DOI : 10.1016/j.ijporl.2014.10.014
  • Affiliations :
    USDA-ARS, United States Salinity Laboratory, 450 West Big Springs Rd., Riverside, CA 92507-4617, USA.
    Authors :
    Elia Scudiero, Todd H. Skaggs, Dennis L. Corwin.
    Abstract:
    Despite decades of research in soil mapping, characterizing the spatial variability of soil salinity across large regions remains a crucial challenge. This work explores the potential use of Landsat 7 (L7) satellite reflectance data (30 × 30 m resolution) to facilitate salinity mapping. Reflectance data spanning a seven-year period (2007–2013) were obtained for western San Joaquin Valley, California (ca. 1.5 × 10 6 ha), over five soil Orders (Aridisols, Entisols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, and Vertisols). Two ground-truth datasets were considered: 267 direct measurements of salinity (one per L7 pixel) from soil samples (EC e ), and 4891 indirect salinity values (EC e ? ) estimated from the relationships of EC e with geospatial (on average 16 per L7 pixel) electromagnetic induction measurements. The EC e ? ground-truth dataset was characterized by stronger relationship with the L7 reflectance, with the multi-year averages of the L7 data showing R 2 up to 0.43. The correlations between L7 data and EC e ? were significantly influenced by rainfall (stronger in dry years than in rainy years), soil properties (weaker in finer soils), and crop type (stronger when soil salinity was over crop stress tolerance threshold). The results suggest that a fusion of the L7 multi-year reflectance data with information on meteorological conditions, crop type, and soil texture could lead to a reliable salinity prediction model for the entire western San Joaquin Valley. Land resource managers, producers, agriculture consultants, extension specialists, and Natural Resource Conservation Service field staff are the beneficiaries of regional-scale maps of soil salinity. • Relationships between soil salinity and Landsat 7 crop reflectance were studied. • Multi-year analysis of Landsat 7 data highlights soil salinity effects. • Between fields, the Landsat 7–salinity relationships vary according to soil type. • Between years, the relationships vary according to meteorological conditions.
    DOI : 10.1016/j.geodrs.2014.10.004
  • Affiliations :
    USDA-ARS, United States Salinity Laboratory, 450 West Big Springs Rd., Riverside, CA 92507–4617, USA.
    Authors :
    Elia Scudiero, Todd H. Skaggs, Dennis L. Corwin.
    Abstract:
    Despite decades of research in soil mapping, characterizing the spatial variability of soil salinity across large regions remains a crucial challenge. This work explores the potential use of Landsat 7 (L7) satellite reflectance data (30 × 30 m resolution) to facilitate salinity mapping. Reflectance data spanning a seven-year period (2007–2013) were obtained for western San Joaquin Valley, California (ca.1.5 × 10 6 ha), over five soil Orders (Entisols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, and Vertisols). Two ground-truth datasets were considered: 267 direct measurements of salinity (one per L7 pixel) from soil samples (EC e ), and 4891 indirect salinity values (EC e ? ) estimated from the relationships of EC e with geospatial (on average 16 per L7 pixel) electromagnetic induction measurements. The EC e ? ground-truth dataset was characterized by stronger relationship with the L7 reflectance, with the multi-year averages of the L7 data showing R 2 up to 0.43. The correlations between L7 data and EC e ? were significantly influenced by rainfall (stronger in dry years than in rainy years), soil properties (weaker in finer soils), and crop type (stronger when soil salinity was over crop stress tolerance threshold).The results suggest that a fusion of the L7 multi-year reflectance data with information on meteorological conditions, crop type, and soil texture could lead to a reliable salinity prediction model for the entire western San Joaquin Valley. Land resource managers, producers, agriculture consultants, extension specialists, and Natural Resource Conservation Service field staff are the beneficiaries of regional-scale maps of soil salinity. • Relationships between soil salinity and Landsat 7 crop reflectance were studied • Multi-year Analysis of Landsat 7 data highlights soil salinity effects • Between fields, the Landsat 7-salinity relationships vary according to soil type • Between years, the relationships vary according to meteorological conditions
    DOI : 10.1016/j.geodrs.2014.10.004
  • Author : Elizabeth J. Corwin
    Affiliations :
    Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, GA; College of Nursing, University of Arizona, San Diego, CA; School of Nursing, University of Texas Health Science Center at Housto.
    Authors :
    Elizabeth J. Corwin, Judith A. Berg, Terri S. Armstrong, Annette DeVito Dabbs, Kathryn A. Lee, Paula Meek, Nancy Redeker.
    Abstract:
    Symptom assessment and management continues to be a priority issue for nursing science and practice. However, as the complexity of symptom etiology and expression becomes clear, new approaches and technologies are needed to better address biology and context, common data sources need to be built and shared, and addressing the impact of empirical findings on health policy becomes essential. In this article, we provide a forum to reflect on the future direction of symptom science, with the goal of stimulating further dialogue and improving outcomes for patients and families around the world and for years to come.
    DOI : 10.1016/j.outlook.2014.06.006
  • Affiliations :
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Unit of Audiology and Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43126 Parma, Italy.
    Authors :
    Andrea Bacciu, Filippo Di Lella, Enrico Pasanisi, Ilaria Gambardella, Maria Silvia Saccardi, Salvatore Bacciu, Vincenzo Vincenti.
    Abstract:
    The clinical features and surgical results of “closed type” versus “open type” congenital cholesteatoma were compared in order to analyse the differences between the two forms; whether the morphology of the disease may have a role in the staging systems has been also evaluated. We reviewed retrospectively 95 patients (96 ears) who underwent surgery for congenital cholesteatoma over a 15-year period focusing on the clinical differences between open and closed type congenital cholesteatoma. Seventy-one patients (74%) had a closed-type and 25 (26%) an open type congenital cholesteatoma. Our study confirmed the higher prevalence of the closed type, as well as, a younger age at initial diagnosis compared with the open type congenital cholesteatoma. Other differences between the two forms were: modality of diagnosis (pathognomonic otoscopy in 100% of the closed type and in 40% of the open type), positive history for otitis media with effusion (51.4% in closed type vs 20% in open type), involvement of the tympanic membrane quadrants (anterior quadrants were more frequently involved in the closed forms, whereas posterior quadrants were more frequently involved in the open forms), disease extension and aggressiveness. A residual cholesteatoma was found in 6 out of the 71 patients (8.4%) with a closed type congenital cholesteatoma and in 10 out of the 25 patients (40%) with an open type congenital cholesteatoma. After adjusting for potential confounders, open-type congenital cholesteatoma was significantly associated with residual cholesteatoma compared to the closed-type (odds ratio [OR] 7.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10–49.77, p = 0.03). This study confirmed that the open congenital cholesteatoma has global clinical features that are uniquely different from the classical closed form. These differences could reflect a distinct pathogenesis, but there is no proof of this to date. The classification of the congenital cholesteatoma could be further refined by adding the morphologic type of the disease.
    DOI : 10.1016/j.ijporl.2014.10.014
  • Affiliations :
    Department of Radiology, University California, Davis Health System, Departments of Radiology and Surgery; Department of Surgical Oncology, University California, Davis Health System, Departments of R.
    Authors :
    Ramit Lamba, Ghaneh Fananazapir, Michael T. Corwin, Vijay P. Khatri.
    Abstract:
    Liver masses are ubiquitous in oncology practice. Metastases constitute the most common malignant liver mass encountered by the oncologist. Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary malignant liver tumor, the majority arising in patients with cirrhosis. Benign masses commonly occur in the liver and can co-exist with malignant masses. Hemangiomas and simple cysts constitute the most common benign masses in the liver. Hepatic sarcomas account for less than 2% of malignant hepatic masses. Multiphase contrast enhanced Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging is the current imaging modality of choice for characterization of a liver mass incidentally detected on imaging. Contrast enhanced Computed Tomography (CT) performed in the portal phase is the mainstay for screening of liver metastases. Both CT and MR characterization of a liver mass primarily relies on the dynamic contrast enhancement characteristics of the mass on multiple phases, especially helpful for accurate characterization of hypervascular masses. Non-invasive magnetic resonance and CT imaging characteristics of both benign and malignant liver masses, coupled with the relevant clinical information allow reliable characterization of majority of liver lesions. Some cases may have non-specific or overlapping features that may present a diagnostic dilemma.
    DOI : 10.1016/j.soc.2014.07.003
  • Affiliations :
    Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 5, 10125 Torino, Italy; Dipartimento di Traumatologia, Ortopedia e Medicina del Lavoro, Università degli Studi di Torino, V.
    Authors :
    Maria C. Valsania, Francesca Fasano, Susan D. Richardson, Marco Vincenti.
    Abstract:
    The reaction between ozone and the three cresol isomers was investigated in pure water. Cresols were selected as model substrates representing an important component of humic material. Cresols carry both a hydroxyl and a methyl group, each theoretically increasing the reactivity of ozone with the aromatic ring. Direct comparison of the aromatic ring and the methyl group reactivities was made possible by the analysis of reaction products. The substrate degradation kinetics was studied by preparing aqueous solutions of each cresol and treating them with ozone for increasing time periods. It had been hypothesized that hydroxybenzaldehydes and hydroxybenzoic acids could be possible degradation intermediates of cresols. To verify this hypothesis, the degradation kinetics of three hydroxybenzaldehydes and two hydroxybenzoic acids were also studied. The reaction products were studied using gas chromatography (GC)-electron capture negative ionization (ECNI)-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis after direct derivatization of the samples with 5-chloro-2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoro-1-pentyl chloroformate (ClOFPCF). This new analytical approach enables the extraction and analysis of highly polar polycarboxylic and hydroxycarboxylic acids, as well as highly polar aldehydes and hydroxy aldehydes that are difficult to extract and measure using conventional methods. As such, this new approach offered insights into ozone reaction intermediates that had been previously hypothesized, but not confirmed. Several highly hydrophilic degradation intermediates were identified, including malic, citraconic, itaconic, malonic, methylmuconic, and tartronic acid, but no hydroxybenzaldehydes were observed. The results support a 3-stage mechanism previously hypothesized, which involves ring-opening of the phenolic group, followed by the generation of several intermediates of increasing oxidation state, finally leading to relatively stable products, such as malonic and oxalic acids. We demonstrated that oxidation of the methyl group does not occur during cresol degradation. ? Reaction of O 3 with three cresol isomers used as model compounds for humic material. ? Ozone reacts preferentially with the aromatic ring, not the methyl group. ? Highly hydrophilic reaction by-products are formed from cresols after ring-opening. ? Chloroformate derivatives of degradation intermediates are identified by GC-ECNI-MS.
    DOI : 10.1016/j.watres.2012.02.040